Sunday, March 13, 2011

INGREDIENT SUBSTITUTION / BAHAN-BAHAN PENGGANTI MASAKAN

HAPPY SUNDAY MORNING TO ALL, yesterday  while I was surfing the net to search for some information on ingredient substitution, I found these listing from joyofbaking.com which I thought could be very useful and handy for us.

Here is the extraction on Ingredient Substitution by joyofbaking.com 

Sometimes you may find it necessary to substitute one ingredient for another in a recipe. But using a different ingredient may change both the taste and texture of your baking, so it is a good idea before substituting to understand the role that ingredient plays in the recipe.  Use this table as a guideline only.


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SALAM dan semoga pagi minggu ini menceriakan anda semua. Untuk hari ini saya nak berkongsi tentang maklumat yang saya dapati dari joyofbaking.com. mengenai bahan-bahan gantian untuk masakan. Memang menarik dan saya rasakan amat berfaedah kepada kita, kerana kita selalu berhadapan dengan bahan-bahan yang sukar diperolehi atau pun kalau adapun setengah-tengah bahan itu tidak berbaloi untuk dibeli kerana mungkin terlalu kecil jumlah yang diperlukan, cuma akan menggunakkanya sekali aje ataupun mungkin tidak berbaloi kalau hendak dibeli sebab harganya mahal. Untuk itu kita memerlukan gantian pada bahan tersebut. 


Apa pun sebelum kita membuat apa-apa keputusan untuk menggantikan bahan-bahan diperlukan itu dengan bahan gantian yang lain, kita perlu memahami "peranan" bahan-bahan itu dahulu supaya tektur makanan dan rasa tidak berubah banyak dari resipi yang asal. Untuk tujuaan itu joyofbaking.com telah memudahkan tugas kita. Satu senarai panjang telah disediakan dan saya rasa cukup lengkap untuk membantu kita dalam menyediakan bahan-bahan yang diperlu. Saya senaraikan usaha-usaha dari joyofbaking.com untuk manafaat semua, Semoga maklumat yang diberi dapat membantu anda.

INGREDIENT
AMOUNT
SUBSTITUTION
Almond Meal1 cup (100 grams)To make your own almond meal place 1 cup (100 grams) sliced (blanched (skins off) or natural (skins on)) almonds with 1 tablespoon (14 grams) granulated white sugar in a blender or food processor and process until finely ground.  Sugar or flour is added to the almonds to prevent clumping as it absorbs the oil exuded from the almonds.  Toasting the almonds first dries them which also helps to prevent clumping.
Almond Paste1 1/3 cups (300 grams)1 3/4 cups (175 grams) ground blanched almonds plus 1 1/2 cups (175 grams) powdered (confectioners or icing) sugar plus 1 large egg white (30 grams) plus 1 teaspoon almond extract plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
Ammonium bicarbonate3/4 teaspoon1 teaspoon baking soda
Arrowroot1 tablespoon (15 grams)1 tablespoon (15 grams) cornstarch, potato starch or rice starch2 tablespoons (25 grams) all purpose


Rule of Thumb: 1 teaspoon for every 1 cup of flour)
High-Altitude Adjustments:
above 3000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon of baking powder in recipe
above 5000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8-1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder  in recipe
above 7000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder in recipe
1 teaspoon1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch1 1/2 teaspoons single-action baking powder
1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt to replace 1/2 cup (120 ml) non-acidic liquid
Baking Powder, single-acting1 teaspoon2/3 teaspoon double-acting baking powder1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch
Baking Soda (Sodium Bicarbonate)(Rule of Thumb: 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 cup of flour)1/2 teaspoon2 teaspoons double-acting baking powder (must replace the acidic liquid in recipe with non-acidic liquid)1/2 teaspoon potassium bicarbonate
Bread Crumbs, Dry1 cup (150 grams)1 cup crushed cracker crumbs
1 cup matzo meal
1 cup crushed cornflakes
1 cup ground oats
1 cup crushed potato chips
Buttermilk (Sour Milk) (see below under MILK, Buttermilk)1 cup (240 ml)
Carob Powder1 tablespoon (7 grams)1 tablespoon (7 grams) cocoa powder (either natural or Dutch-processed)
Chocolate, Bittersweet or Semi-sweet1 ounce (30 grams)1/2 ounce (15 grams) unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon (15 grams) granulated white sugar
Chocolate, Milk1 ounce (30 grams)1 ounce (30 grams) bittersweet or semi-sweet plus 1 tablespoon (15 grams) granulated white sugar1 ounce (30 grams) sweet dark chocolate
1 ounce (30 grams) white chocolate
Chocolate, Sweet German1 ounce (30 grams)1 ounce (30 grams) bittersweet or semi-sweet chocolate plus 1/2 tablespoon (7 grams) granulated white sugar1 ounce (30 grams) milk chocolate
Chocolate, Unsweetened1 ounce (30 grams)3 tablespoons (20 grams) natural cocoa powder (not Dutch-processed) plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter, vegetable oil or shortening
Chocolate, White1 ounce (30 grams)1 ounce (30 grams) milk chocolate1 ounce (30 grams) sweet dark chocolate
Cocoa Powder, Dutch-Processed3 tablespoons (20 grams)3 tablespoons (20 grams) natural unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate plus 1/8 teaspoon baking soda (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)
3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder
Cocoa Powder, Natural Unsweetened3 tablespoons (20 grams)3 tablespoons (20 grams) Dutch-processed cocoa plus 1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar, lemon juice or white vinegar1 ounce (30 grams) unsweetened chocolate (reduce fat in recipe by 1 tablespoon)
3 tablespoons (20 grams) carob powder
Coconut, fresh1 cup1 cup (90 grams) dried flaked coconut3/4 cup (75 grams) dried shredded coconut
Coconut, dry shredded1 cup (90 grams)1 1/4 cups freshly grated coconut1 1/4 cup (110 grams) dried flaked coconut
Coconut milk, fresh1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) canned coconut milk (not low fat)3 tablespoons canned cream of coconut plus enough hot water or milk to equal 1 cup (240 ml)
1/4 cup (60 ml) coconut cream powder plus 1 cup (240 ml) hot water or milk
Coconut cream, fresh1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) canned coconut cream1 cup (240 ml) top layer of canned coconut milk (not low fat) (do not shake or stir can before skimming)
1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1/2 cup coconut cream powder
Coffee, strong brewed1/4 cup (60 ml)2 tablespoons (10 grams) instant espresso powder dissolved in 3 tablespoons hot water
Cookie Crumbs1 cup (100 grams)Can substitute equally among chocolate wafers, vanilla wafers, graham crackers, macaroons, or gingersnaps
Cornmeal, stone ground1 cup (180 grams)1 cup regular milled cornmeal1 cup corn grits
1 cup polenta
1 cup maize meal
Corn Syrup, Dark1 cup (240 ml)3/4 cup (180 ml) light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) light molasses
Corn Syrup, Light1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) dark corn syrup1 cup(240 ml)  treacle
1 cup (240 ml) liquid glucose
1 cup (240 ml) honey
1 cup (200 grams) granulated white sugar (increase the liquid in the recipe by 1/4 cup (60 ml))
Cornstarch or Corn flour (for thickening)1 tablespoon (15 grams)2 tablespoons (25 grams) all purpose flour1 tablespoon (15 grams) potato starch or rice starch or flour
1 tablespoon (15 grams) arrowroot
2 tablespoons (25 grams) quick-cooking (instant) tapioca
Cream of Tartar1/2 teaspoon1/2 teaspoon white vinegar or lemon juice
Cream, Clotted1 cup (225 grams)1 cup (225 grams) cr?e fra?/font>che1 cup (225 grams) mascarpone cheese
1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat), whipped
Cream, Cr?e fra?/font>che1 cup (225 grams)1 cup (225 grams) sour cream1 cup (240 ml) whipping cream plus 1 tablespoon buttermilk or yogurt
1/2 cup (120 ml) whipping cream plus 1/2 cup (112 grams) sour cream
1 cup (225 grams) mascarpone cheese
Cream, Half & Half (10 - 12% Butterfat)1 cup (240 ml)7/8 cup (210 ml) whole milk plus 2 tablespoons (25 grams) melted unsalted butter1/2 cup (120 ml) light cream (5% butterfat) plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) whole milk
1/2 cup (120 ml) partly skimmed milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) heavy whipping cream (35%)
Cream, Heavy (35% butterfat) (not for whipping)1 cup (240 ml)2/3 cup (160 ml) whole milk plus 1/3 cup (75 grams) melted unsalted butter
Cream, Light or Coffee Cream (18% Butterfat)1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) half & half cream (12% butterfat)7/8 cup (210 ml) whole milk plus 3 tablespoons (35 grams) melted butter
1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated milk or heavy cream plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) milk
Cream, Light Whipping (30% Butterfat) (not for whipping)1 cup (240 ml)3/4 cup (180 ml) whole milk plus 1/4 cup (57 grams) melted unsalted butter1 cup (240 ml) half & half cream (12% butterfat)
Cream, Sour1 cup (225 grams) (8 ounces)1 cup (225 grams) plain yogurt3/4 cup (180 ml) sour milk, buttermilk or plain yogurt + 1/3 cup (75 grams) melted butter
1 cup (225 grams) cr?e fra?/font>che
1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough whole milk to fill 1 cup (240 ml) (let stand 5-10 minutes)
Currants1 cup (120 grams)1 cup (120 grams)  raisins1 cup (120 grams) chopped dates
1 cup (120 grams) other dried fruit (cranberries, cherries, blueberries)
Eggs, whole1 large (about 2 ounces)In Shell (57 grams)
Without Shell (50 grams)
2 large egg yolks (36 grams) plus 1 tablespoon water (in baking)2 large egg yolks (36 grams) (for custards, sauces, puddings and mousses)
3 1/2 tablespoons frozen whole egg, thawed
3 1/2 tablespoons egg substitute
2 1/2 tablespoons powdered whole egg plus 2 1/2 tablespoons water
Eggs, whites1 large egg white (30 grams)2 tablespoons frozen egg whites, thawed1 tablespoon powdered egg white plus 2 tablespoons water
Eggs, yolks2 large yolks (36 grams)1 large whole egg (In Shell 57 grams) (Without Shell 50 grams)
Eggs, yolks1 large yolk (18 grams)2 tablespoons powdered egg yolk plus 2 teaspoons water3 1/2 teaspoons frozen egg yolks, thawed
Extract, pure Vanilla1 teaspoon1/2 of vanilla bean1/2 - 1 teaspoon other extract (almond, orange, lemon, etc.)
Other Extracts (almond, lemon, orange, peppermint, etc.)1 teaspoon1 teaspoon of other extract (vanilla, orange, lemon, etc.)1 to 2 drops of oil of same flavor
Fats, Salted Butter1/2 cup (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) unsalted butter plus 1/4 teaspoon salt1/2 cup (113 grams) margarine
1/2 cup (113 grams) solid vegetable shortening or lard
Fats, Unsalted Butter1/2 cup (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams)  salted butter (decrease the salt in recipe by 1/4 teaspoon)1/2 cup (113 grams) margarine
1/2 cup (113 grams) solid vegetable shortening or lard
Fats, Lard1/2 cup (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) solid vegetable shortening1/2 cup (113 grams) plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) unsalted butter
Fats, Margarine1/2 cup (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) salted or unsalted butter1/2 cup (113 grams) solid vegetable shortening
Fats, Solid Vegetable Shortening1/2 cup (113 grams)1/2 cup (113 grams) salted or unsalted butter1/2 cup(113 grams) lard
1/2 cup (113 grams) margarine
Flour, All Purpose1 cup (140 grams)1 cup (110 grams) plus 2  tablespoons (20 grams) sifted cake flour1 cup (140 grams) self-rising flour (omit baking powder and salt from recipe)
7/8 cup (130 grams) rice flour (starch) (do not replace all of the flour with the rice flour)
1/2 cup (65 grams) white cake flour plus 1/2 cup (75 grams) whole wheat flour
FLOUR, Bread1 cup (160 grams)1 cup (140 grams) all purpose flour
FLOUR, Cake1 cup (130 grams)3/4 cup (105 grams) all purpose flour plus 2 tablespoons (30 grams) cornstarch
FLOUR, Pastry2 cups (270 grams)1 1/3 cup (185 grams) all purpose flour plus 2/3 cup (85 grams) cake flour
FLOUR, Rice1 cup (150 grams)Equal amounts of cake or pastry flour
FLOUR, Self-Rising1 cup (140 grams)1 cup (140 grams) similar grade (all purpose) flour plus  1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder plus 1/4 teaspoon salt
FLOUR, Whole Wheat1 cup (150 grams)7/8 cup (120 grams)  all purpose flour plus 2 tablespoon (6 grams) wheat germ1 cup graham flour
GELATIN, Leaf or Sheet4 leaves (4 x 9 inches) (10 x 23 cm)1 (1/4 ounce) envelope (7 grams) powdered gelatin
GELATIN, Powdered (Unflavored)1 envelope (1/4 ounce) (1 tablespoon granules) (7 grams)4 leaves sheet gelatin2 teaspoons agar
Ghee1 tablespoon1 tablespoon clarified butter1 tablespoon vegetable oil
Ginger Root, freshly grated1 tablespoon1 tablespoon candied ginger, rinsed and finely chopped1 1/2 teaspoon ground dried ginger plus 1/2 teaspoon fresh lemon juice
Glucose, liquid1/2 cup (120 ml)1/2 cup (120 ml) light corn syrup
Golden Syrup1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) treacle1 cup (240 ml) light molasses
1 cup (240 ml) corn syrup
Honey1 cup (240 ml)3/4 cup (180 ml) maple syrup plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar3/4 cup (180 ml) light or dark corn syrup plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar
3/4 cup (180 ml) light molasses plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) granulated white sugar
1 1/4 cups (250 grams - 265 grams) granulated white or brown sugar plus 1/4 cup (60 ml) additional liquid in recipe plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
Lemon Juice, freshly squeezed1 tablespoon1 tablespoon bottled lemon juice1 tablespoon fresh lime juice
1/2 tablespoon vinegar (depending on recipe and do not use for flavoring)
Lemon, Zest1 teaspoon1 teaspoon orange or lime zest1/2 teaspoon lemon extract
Lime Juice, freshly squeezed1 tablespoon1 tablespoon lemon or orange juice
Lime, Zest1 teaspoon1 teaspoon lemon or orange
Maple Sugar, finely grated1/2 cup (100 grams)1 cup (240 ml) maple syrup (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup)3/4 cup (150 grams) granulated white sugar plus 1 teaspoon pure maple extract
Maple Syrup1 cup (240 ml)1/2 cup (100 grams) maple sugar (increase liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup (60 ml))1 cup (240 ml) honey
3/4 cup (180 ml) corn syrup plus 1/4 cup (57 grams) butter plus 1/2 teaspoon maple extract (optional)
Marshmallows8 regular1 cup miniature2.5 ounces marshmallow cream
Marzipan2 1/2 cups (560 grams)2 cups (450 grams) almond paste plus 1 cup (115 grams) powdered sugar plus 2 tablespoons light corn syrup
Mascarpone Cheese1 cup (8 ounces) (225 grams)1 cup (225 grams) Cr?e fra?/font>che3/4 cup (170 grams) cream cheese beaten with 1/4 cup (60 ml) heavy whipping cream (35%)
MILK, Buttermilk (sour milk)1 cup (240 ml)1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar (white or cider) plus enough milk to make 1 cup (240 ml) (let stand 5-10 minutes)1 cup (225 grams) plain or low fat yogurt
1 cup (225 grams) sour cream
1 cup (240 ml) water plus 1/4 cup buttermilk powder
1 cup (240 ml) milk plus 1 1/2 - 1 3/4 teaspoons cream of tartar
MILK, Sweetened Condensed14 ounce can (396 grams)1 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 2/3 cup (135 grams) granulated white sugar plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) boiling water plus 3 tablespoons (35 grams) melted unsalted butter (process in blender or food processor until smooth)
MILK, Evaporated Whole1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) half & half (10-12% butterfat)1 cup (240 ml) light or table cream (20% butterfat)
1 cup (240 ml) light (30% butterfat) or heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat)
MILK, Skim (Non fat)1 cup (240 ml)1/4 cup powdered skim milk plus 7/8 cup (210 ml) water1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated skim milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water
MILK, Whole (3.5%)1 cup (240 ml)1/2 cup (120 ml) evaporated whole milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water1/2 cup condensed milk plus 1/2 cup (120 ml) water
1 cup (240 ml) skim milk plus 2 tablespoons (25 grams) melted butter or margarine
1/4 cup powdered skim milk plus 7/8 cup (210 ml) water plus 1 tablespoon (14 grams) melted butter or margarine
Molasses1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) honey1 cup (240 ml) dark corn syrup
1 cup (240 ml) maple syrup
3/4 cup (180 ml) light or dark brown sugar heated to dissolve in 1/4 cup (60 ml)  liquid
Nuts, chopped, ground, or whole1 cup (100 grams)1 cup (100 grams) of similar nuts prepared in the same way
Oats, quick-cooking rolled1 cup (90 grams)1 cup (90 grams) regular (old fashioned) rolled oats
Oats, regular (old-fashioned)1 cup (90 grams)1 cup (90 grams) quick-cooking rolled
Orange Juice, freshly squeezed1 cup (240 ml)1 cup reconstituted frozen concentrate
Orange, Zest1 teaspoon1 teaspoon lemon or lime zest1 teaspoon finely chopped candied orange peel
Polenta, dry1 cup (180 grams)1 cup cornmeal1 cup maize meal
1 cup corn grits
Raisins1 cup (120 grams)1 cup (120 grams) dried currants1 cup (120 grams) pitted chopped dates
1 cup (120 grams) dried fruit, finely chopped (cherries, cranberries, blueberries, etc.)
Ricotta Cheese1 cup (8 ounces) (225 grams)1 cup (225 grams) dry cottage cheese
Rose Water1 teaspoon1 teaspoon any flower-based water
Salt, kosher1 teaspoon1 teaspoon sea salt or table
Salt, sea salt1 teaspoon1 teaspoon kosher or table
Salt, table1 teaspoon1 teaspoon kosher or sea salt
SUGAR, granulated white1 cup (200 grams)1 cup (200 grams) caster (superfine) sugar1 cup (215 grams) tightly packed light or dark brown sugar
SUGAR, brown, light or dark1 cup (215 grams)1 cup (215 grams) raw sugar1 cup (200 grams) white granulated sugar
1 cup (200 grams) white granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup (60 ml)  unsulfured light molasses
For light brown sugar - substitute 1/2 cup (110 grams) dark brown sugar plus 1/2 cup (100 grams) white granulated sugar
SUGAR, caster (superfine)1 cup (200 grams)1 cup (200 grams) granulated white sugar, processed in food processor until very fine
SUGAR, raw1 cup (215 grams)1 cup (215 grams) light or dark brown sugar
Tapioca, instant or quick-cooking1 tablespoon (12 grams)2 tablespoons (24 grams) pearl tapioca, soaked1 1/2 tablespoons (20 grams) flour
Treacle1 cup (240 ml)1 cup (240 ml) light or dark corn syrup1 cup (240 ml)  light molasses
Vanilla Bean1 bean2 - 3 teaspoons pure vanilla extract
Vanilla Extract1 teaspoon1/2 teaspoon powdered
VINEGAR, apple cider vinegar1/4 cup (60 ml)1/4 cup (60 ml) white vinegar
VINEGAR, white1/4 cup (60 ml)1/4 cup (60 ml) apple cider vinegar
1/3 cup (80 ml) freshly squeezed lemon juice
YEAST, active dry1 envelope (1/4 ounce) (7 grams)1 scant (7 grams) tablespoon active dry yeast1 cake (3/5 ounce) fresh compressed yeast
1 tablespoon (7 grams) fast-rising active yeast
YEAST, compressed1 cake (3/5 ounce)1 (1/4 ounce) envelope (7 grams) active dry yeast1 scant tablespoon (7 grams) active dry yeast
Yogurt, plain (not low fat)1 cup (225 grams)1 cup (225 grams) sour cream1 cup (240 ml) buttermilk
1 cup (225 grams) cr?e fra?he
1 cup (240 ml) heavy whipping cream (35% butterfat) plus 1 tablespoon freshly squeezed lemon juice

4 comments:

izahdaut said...

wah..info yang terbaik..nak copy jugak la kak paty ye..terima kasih..dan selamat berhujung minggu kak yee...

Nor Sunatis said...

mintak izin copy ye

d-yana said...

trima kasih atas info yg diberi..sbt brmakna...mintak izin copy ye...terima kasih sekali lagi..

Suerry Ghaz said...

Salam sis paty sya mohon copy n share...Many Thanks :)

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